Vol. 4 No. 1 (2021): Pakistan Journal of International Affairs


Published 2021-03-31


Terrorism is a universally contested concept with varying understanding in different regions of the world. Its conceptualization in developed countries and developing countries is different in the essence of perception and operationalization. This study attempts to explore the genesis of terrorism generally in Pakistan and Swat valley in particular. It explores the causes and major driving forces of terrorism and the factors which contributed to its spread because of social fault lines. The menace of terrorism had been globalized in the wake of 9/11, which led the US to initiate global war on terror, but its implications on Pakistan were triggered by the US invasion of Afghanistan and the contributions of Pakistan in this regard. The global geographic attraction of Pakistan makes it vulnerable to any critical development in the world by default. To analyze the causes and impacts of the study, this study relies on a descriptive method of analysis backed by primary and secondary data in a bid to provide more diversity for a broader understanding of the outcome. This study found out multiple factors including weak social fabric, political instability, the grim economic situation of masses, poor education and health facilities, and above all, lack of social justice responsible for instigating violence in the region and urge to challenge the writ of the state, this study further debates on the losses incurred to inhabitants with the destruction of civil infrastructure. Pakistan lost approximately 35000  civilians and 7000 military personnel in the war on terror in exclusion to the loss of the economy in this particular area. This study efforts to suggest concrete steps to improve security conditions in the area to foster socio-economic development in the region and provide adequate facilities and living standards.