PIOUS CALIPHATE VS UMAYYAD KINGSHIP: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BASIC RELIGIOUS STRUCTURE
The foundation of Islamic empire stands upon religious grounds to justify its legitimacy. Muslim sovereigns try to link their rule with pious Caliphate model and the first dynasty to do that was of the Umayyad Empire, though they assumed the title of Caliph but unlike pious caliphate they had a Kingship model. The research focuses on the basic religious elements of an Islamic empire to clarify the debate what is an Islamic model and which models represent a true example, whether it is theocracy or democracy or an amalgamation of both or is something new. The research also focuses why Muslims as a ruler are different from pious caliphs and why they try to quote examples of caliphate models. Is it necessary to quote pious caliphate models to unite the Muslims under one empire? Is it an indication that Muslims won’t follow un-Islamic or noncaliphate models? Whether the caliphate rule of Umayyad was different from that of Monarchy of Saudi Arabia and that of Qatar and of Arab world? The research analyzes the special features of pious Caliphate model and then discards the innovations in Umayyad model thus rejecting Umayyad rule as a succession of Caliphate but recognizes it simply as an Islamic rule. So, it clarifies what is a pious caliphate model and how should it be and answers the question whether that model can be implemented today?