PAK-AFGHAN TIES A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
Tensions between Afghanistan and Pakistan have existed for a long time and can be traced back to five key factors: security interest considerations, cross-border ties and connectivity, geopolitical dynamics, national sovereignty concerns, and regional and international relations. These forces will have an influence on the long-term stability prospects in Afghanistan and the surrounding area if they work together. A tight eye will be kept on the battlefield, given the possibility of escalation following the withdrawal of the US and foreign forces. As the relationship between Afghanistan and Pakistan deteriorates, it is possible that any remaining hopes for a negotiated settlement would be jeopardised. Once the fighting has been brought to a halt or a new administration has been established, bilateral relations will have an influence on the security, political, and economic dynamics of the region throughout the medium to long term. Having a strong relationship with Pakistan can help to promote stability and progress. However, because of the hatred on both sides, which has been heightened by the conflict, the inverse consequence is more likely. The most promising path forward for Afghanistan and Pakistan in terms of expanding their cross-border connections for the benefit of regional peace and the well-being of their populations is to acknowledge and attempt to resolve one another's security and sovereignty concerns in a peaceful and constructive manner through dialogue.