Vol. 4 No. 3 (2021): Pakistan Journal of International Affairs
Articles

NATURE OF RELATIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM AND NON- MUSLIM STATES DISCOURSE OF MUSLIM CLASSICAL AND CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARS

Published 2021-09-27

Abstract

The nature of the relations between Muslims and non-Muslims states has always been debatable to Muslim and non-Muslim scholars. After the incident of 9/11, the nature of relations between Muslims states and nation states once again emerged as burning issue and research is started by Muslim and non-Muslim scholars on the doctrine of Jihād. Two different views regarding the nature of relations among states came into being: the first one is that the world is divided into two parts Muslim and nonMuslim states. The impact of this division yields to perpetual war between Muslim and non-Muslim states. The other view is that there are peaceful relations between Muslim and non-Muslim states in all situations. It is felt that these two views regarding the nature of relations between Muslim and non-Muslim states are based on overestimation. There is enormous need to analyze the views of classical and contemporary scholars regarding the nature of relations between Muslim and non-Muslim to point the accepted view of Muslim International Law(MIL). This research investigates the classical and contemporary scholar’s views regarding the relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims. This study sums up that neither the diversity in faith between Muslims and non-Muslims nor the differences of territorial jurisdiction necessarily create hostility. MIL considers only aggression is cause of war either caused by the Nation States or group of non-Muslim individuals or even by Muslims like rebels. The aggression may be either against Muslim state or Muslims individuals who reside even beyond the territorial jurisdiction of Muslim state. Similarly, MIL considers breach of peace treaty or preventing non-Muslims from embracing Islam or compelling Muslims from being not following Islam or making them apostates, as aggression. Any act of Blasphemy against