Pakistan Journal of International Affairs 2021-03-29T05:21:30+00:00 Dr. Syed Shahabuddin Open Journal Systems <p>Pakistan Journal of International Affairs (PJIA) is peer-reviewed journal that publishes original contributions in the field of International Relations. Articles reporting empirical studies and theoretical analyses from a range of perspectives and all aspects of international affairs are welcome. The journal particularly welcomes papers that focus to sensitize and provide direction for policy and practice that arise from theoretical and empirical work. PJIA welcome articles that aim to identify news areas for research and develop critique and reflection in world politics, states affairs, international laws, Islamic laws, global social and ethical behavour and global economics issues.</p> <p>The Journal is presently recognized by the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan in "Y" Category.</p> From Strategic Partnership to Strategic Interdependence: The Pak-China Duo 2021-03-29T04:59:31+00:00 Namra Naseer, Dr. Azhar Ahmad <p>China and Pakistan are frequently touted as “strategic partners” based on the historic journey that has fused both states in a resilient partnership. The bilateral relationship is multisectoral based on diplomatic, defence and socio-economic cooperation. If focus of the bilateral ties is to be pinpointed, it would be defence and security cooperation that has been the defining factor of the relationship. However, the equation transformed with the transformation in the geopolitical context of the South Asian region post-2011. Pakistan signed a major economic venture with China; the China Pakistan Economic Corridor besides opening up to Russia as well. After the launch of CPEC in 2015, the defence centric bilateral relationship between Pakistan and China changed into a mega economic partnership. The paper has attempted to understand this transformation between the two countries and make a case for “strategic interdependence” rather than strategic partnership. Since, interdependence takes a deeper meaning than partnership.</p> 2021-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of International Affairs Facebook as an Instrument of Political Participation in the Youth of Pakistan 2021-03-29T04:59:32+00:00 Komal Ahmed, Dr. Maryam Azam, Dr. Ayesha Siddiqua <p>The inclusion of social media in politics has bought major transformations in the political culture and narrative building. In turn, it has massive impact on shaping and reshaping the public opinion. In addition, it also influences the perception of policy makers and leaders. In this context, this paper entails that how face book played a significant role in bringing youth as an active agent in the politics of Pakistan. The results identify that use of Face book played a significant role in increasing youth participation and their interest in politics.</p> 2021-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of International Affairs The Rise and Decline of US Interest and Influence in Kyrgyzstan 2021-03-29T04:59:33+00:00 Dr. Faisal Javaid, Dr. Suwaibah Qadri <p>The rise of independent Central Asian states after the disintegration of the USSR has transformed the regional geostrategic environment. America quickly established diplomatic relations with the Kyrgyz Republic in 1991. Kyrgyzstan is not a wealthy state and it is facing several challenges such as ethnic issues, bad governance, narcotics, and foreign involvements. After the 9/11 events, the state got special attention for America due to its geographical position towards Afghanistan. Kyrgyzstan condemned these attacks and supported to anti-terrorist alliance. It offered military bases for operation in Afghanistan after the relation between America and Kyrgyzstan have strengthened. After the tulip revolution, both states' relationships were affected. This research examines the role of the United States in Kyrgyzstan. It also examines the political, economic, and security relations between the U.S. and Kyrgyzstan. This study evaluates the several challenges tackled by the United States.</p> 2021-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of International Affairs New Era in Pakistan’s Foreign Policy: Problems and Prospects 2021-03-29T04:59:33+00:00 Fauzia Darabu, Prof. Dr. Sayeda Daud <p>Pakistan has a long history of economic and political instability despite being an ally of the west. All national and external decisions were dependent on the interests of these powers. Pakistan never had the opportunity to establish either a strong democratic government or to pursue any independent, foreign relations since 1947specially during Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, in December, 1979. Despite of sacrificing lives of many of her citizens during the War on Terror after 9/11, instead of appreciation form the West especially the US, Pakistan was labeled as a terrorist and an extremist Muslim Country. Kept isolated from the International Community, Pakistan was left no choice but to look for a more regional ally with common interests. Joining hands with China, the most trusted friend and an economic giant, seemed the only option. In this way, Pakistan hoped to play a better international role by having relations with all players in the region. To find out the root causes of these problems, a Qualitative Research Method was applied for a descriptive, in-depth critical analysis by, reliable and authentic primary and secondary sources. This research has made an attempt to clarify the risks and the stance of US as a stake holder; China-Pakistan relations, especially in the context of CPEC. The research has tried to highlight the importance of a state’s self-reliance and freedom to have an independent foreign policy of a developing country like Pakistan.</p> 2021-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of International Affairs The Indian Occupied Kashmir Dispute: A Legal Analysis in purview of United Nations Resolutions 2021-03-29T04:59:34+00:00 Dr. Rao Qasim Idrees, Dr. Muhammad Imran, Tahir Jamil <p>Kashmir is an uncontrollable conflict between the two South Asian countries: India and Pakistan. Since 1989 the people of Kashmir have faced a massive violation of human rights committed by Indian forces. The United Nations resolutions strengthened the Kashmiri’s movement of freedom. However, it is also a reality that, somehow and somewhere, the UN had failed in the Kashmir dispute in order to give the implementation to its resolutions. The Kashmir issue is complicated but could have been resolved if the UN had taken its responsibility with true letter and spirit. Recently, the Indian government changed the status of Kashmir by the abolishment of Article 370 and 35A, and also passing a Bill in August 2019, further makes the situation more difficult in Kashmir. In this situation, it is pertinent to mention here that Indian occupied Kashmir is a disputed issue in the light of UNSC resolutions between two south Asian countries. The current research is based upon descriptive and historical methodology and the facts and results are provided as per the legal analysis of the current situation of Indian occupied Kashmir. Finally, this research concludes that India cannot solve the Kashmir dispute through revocation of Article 370 and 35A of the Indian constitution provisions about the status of Kashmir, and also not use of force; the Kashmir dispute can only be resolved according to the Resolution adopted by the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan on 13 August 1948.</p> 2021-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of International Affairs Pakistan-China Nuclear Energy Cooperation Emerging: Trends to Achieve Sustainable Development Goals 2021-03-29T04:59:34+00:00 Dr. Allauddin, Azeem Khalid & Malik Muhammad Ali <p>This paper analyses the bilateral cooperation between China and Pakistan specifically in the arena of nuclear cooperation. While describing the chronological civil nuclear collaboration between the two friendly nations it states that both countries cultivated a natural partnership with each other to further strengthen the bilateral ties. Historical cooperation between China and Pakistan in terms of Nuclear Technology was analyzed in the face of the opposition of international regimes critical to nuclear proliferation. To apply neo-realist paradigm, it is concluded that strategic cooperation in terms of nuclear technology is in the interest of both China and Pakistan for two reasons: Fist to balance their belligerent neighboring country India; second, countering the United States involvement in the region. To fulfill Pakistan’s growing energy requirements, Pakistan, must continue its nuclear cooperation and extend it to the scientific research. This cooperation made Pakistan self-sufficient to meet the energy needs and opened new avenues of opportunities. This paper recommends that the strategic partnership between the two nations is inevitable for maintaining balance of power in the region. This research paper will highlight Sino-Pakistan nuclear cooperation in historical as well as in the context of emerging trends of strategic developments, such as the Indo-US nuclear agreement. The Sino-Pakistani nuclear deals aims to meet Pakistan’s growing energy demand. In strategic context, the Sino-Pakistan cooperation aims to maintain balance of power in the region. Data collection will include both primary and secondary sources.</p> 2021-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of International Affairs Social Media Might Bring About Social Revolution in Pakistan 2021-03-29T04:59:35+00:00 Masood Ahmed, Dr. Noreen Aleem, Human Nisar Khan <p>This study strives to explain the great potential of revolution in Pakistani Society. We have taken into account the previous historical and modern successful revolution of the world to analyze the root cause of its success that can be associated with the potential of Pakistani people at large. Moreover, literature signifies, “How does a revolution take place?” that enables us to find our objectives. The Qualitative Research Methodology and “Hermeneutic Approach” are adapted to draw out the assumption and to understand the Psyche of Pakistani Society. According to the finding, a revolution in Pakistan might be possible and activated in future, as the present political scenario has ignited the feeling of being subjects of political class of king families. Regardless of many differences in political and religious sentiments, the Pakistani people are cathartic in nature and react emotionally and aggressively on any incidence of human injustice and tyranny. As we have seen in the past at different sentimental issues, like agitation against ten year Ayub Era, agitation against Bhutto regime by National Alliance and in former East Pakistan as Bangladesh Revolution and above all, the successful active role of social media on all such injustices and tyrannical incidences in society. All these phenomena lead to a revolution in future to come in Pakistan.</p> 2021-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan Journal of International Affairs